They are distinguished by their unique method of measuring time and distance.

Accordingly, their linages can be traced in much the same way that archeologists use shards of pottery to identify ancient cultures.

Recent discoveries at Göbekli Tepe, and elsewhere, lead us to believe they were prediluvian and extraordinarily proficient in math and astronomy and held a clear understanding of Nature’s cycles of time. Perhaps, the hundreds, if not thousands, of megalithic structures scattered throughout the world, symbolize the extraordinary measures these people had taken to preserve their remarkable heritage—a gift to humanity.

Then came the flood…

Some 12,000+ years ago, temperatures rose sharply causing ice caps to melt and a vast amount of water to pour into the sea. Sea levels eventually rose 400 feet and the best coastal lands on Earth and all traces of the people who lived on them vanished beneath the sea. Over time, those who survived slowly began to emerge.

  1. Mesopotamia Civilization: Emerged in the valley between the Tigris and Euphrates in present-day Iraq and were the predecessors of the Sumerian and Babylonian cultures.
  2. Osirian Civilization: Emerged in the Mediterranean region and is widely believed to be the predecessors of the ancient Egyptian, Minoan and Mycenean cultures.
  3. Mesoamerican Civilization: Emerged in the equatorial regions of North and South America and were the predecessors of the Aztec, Mayan, and Inca cultures.
  4. Ancient Chinese Civilization: Emerged from the area around the Yangtze River and were the predecessors of the Han and Shang dynasties. 

    Underwater (preflood) pyramid of Yonaguni-Jima. Japan

Their method of computing numbers tells a story. The Sexagesimal system, for example, is unique to ancient Mesopotamia and is fundamentally based on the number 60 (or base-60). Its linage can be easily traced to the Sumerians, and then to the Babylonians and, ultimately, to the extended family still using the system today.

In Mesoamerica, it was a system that was fundamentally based on the number 20 (or base-20), and all subsequent cultures arising out of that area identified with base-20.

In the Mediterranean region, a unique system emerged from the Osirian Civilization that was fundamentally based on the number 10 (or base-10) and was later adopted by the Egyptians, Minoan and Mycenean cultures.

The Chinese Civilization developed a unique system that was fundamentally based on the number 15 (or base-15), which later expanded throughout the Orient.

All four of these numbering systems are common knowledge. What is not common knowledge, however, is that they all embrace or integrate with the ANCIENT 360-DAY CALENDAR

As difficult as it may be for historians to accept, there is ample evidence that a 360-day calendar had been used for several thousand years by peoples on all four continents. More specifically–the Mayan Empire, Egypt, Aztec Empire, India, Samaria, Babylonia, Armenia, Greece, Rome, China, and Hebrews.

At least some of them were aware that Earth’s orbit around the Sun required 365 + days and maintained two calendars which were reconciled at year-end by simply adding an additional 5-days. However, their primary focus was on the period of 360-days. 


They were obviously interested in the orbital interaction between the Earth and Moon as they orbit the Sun. The illustration below shows that the moon does not orbit the Earth as is commonly believed. The two bodies orbit each other around a common center of mass.

The next illustration shows that the path of the common-center-of-mass (between the Earth and Moon) forms a near-perfect circle in its trip around the Sun (shown in red). Astonishingly, the Earth’s orbit (shown in white) geometrically, squares the red circle. The “Red” and “White” lines in the diagram represent two calendars. The red is the 360-day calendar, and the white is the 365-day.  


The crossing-points of the red and white lines define zones of high and low pressure which trigger our seasons. This kind of knowledge could be critical to the long-term survival of agriculturally based societies. Accordingly, the crossing points were cause for celebration.

As was noted above, the construction of the 360-day calendar (or lunisolar year) is based on the orbit periods of both, the Earth and Moon. In other words, the sum of the Gregorian 365-day calendar and the 355-day lunar calendar is 720-days–which was regarded as constant. The mean period being the 360-days. In essence, it is a binary system.

Why was the 720-days regarded as a constant?

The Earth’s Yin to the Moon’s Yang

The Earth and Lunar orbits interact as a binary pair. Over time, apsidal motion causes the Earth’s orbit to expand and contract which also has an effect on the length of the year. At the very same time, however, the lunar orbit is doing the same–but in contra fashion.

Kepler’s law of planetary motion clearly states that all orbits are ellipses–not circles, and that also applies to binaries. What that means is that the diameter of an ellipse is composed of two radiuses of differing lengths (one shorter than the other). In the case of the lunisolar system, the short is the Moon’s radial distance from the Sun and the long is the Earth’s radial distance from the Sun. Together, they form what is called the line of apsides (which is the same length as the orbit’s major axis).

Elliptic orbits experience what is called axial precession and the lunisolar orbit is no exception. The orbital interaction of its two components forms a repeat cycle (or precession period) of (9 + 9 + 9 + 9) = 36-years–which is more than likely to have a significant influences on space weather. It resonates perfectly with (3) Jupiter cycles (3 X 12=36). The short video below illustrates how the Earth-Jupiter synodic configuration plays out over time.

The 36-year repeat cycle may also modulate solar output. For example, 4 X 36 is 144-years which is a period that is synodically composed of (12) Jupiter cycles and (13) sunspot cycles of 11.0769-years. Statistically, the length of the average historical sunspot cycle has a period of 11.0769-years. Is that simply a coincidence? 

Another coincidence is that 720 X 36 repeat cycles = 25,920-years, which is the “precession of the equinoxes” or, what the ancients referred to, as the GREAT YEAR. 

More important, however, is how the four ancient civilizations subdivided the number 360. That is what truly sets them apart.

The table below lists the numerical attributes of each system (their method of measuring time and distance). The differences between them are readily apparent. 

The number 360 is used to divide the sky into intervals of 1-degree. Then, the 360-degrees are subdivided by the base number which calculates a set of larger intervals (labeled as secondary). The secondary numbers reflect the number of milestones used to correlate distance with time.

Click here to see an example of how the milestones are used. 

Milestones are associated with specific stars. The Egyptians, for example, identified 36-stars (called Decans) which were positioned 10-degrees apart all the way around the ecliptic circle. Each of the Decans was astrologically significant to the Egyptians.   

Planet Earth was the central focal point. The Sun’s apparent path (the ecliptic) forms a 360-degree circle representing the sky. Because all planets orbit in close proximity to the ecliptic, their orbital progress could be easily monitored against the backdrop of 360 (1-degree intervals), along with a series of evenly spaced milestones.

Sumerian text written on ancient clay tablets tells us that the focal point of their grid structure was a unit referred to as “gesh”. One “gesh” has an equivalence of 4-minutes. Everything else is simply a multiple of 4-minutes. For example, the Earth’s period of rotation is 1-day, and, technically, an Earth day consists of exactly 1440-minutes. Dividing 1440 by 360 is exactly 4-minutes (or 1-gesh). In other words, 4-minutes is 1-degree of rotation. That is no accident. 

When 1440-minutes is multiplied by 360 the result is a period of 518,400-minutes (the number of minutes in a 360-day year). That is no accident either.

When the 518,400 is multiplied by 360, the result is 186,624,000 (the length of the Earth-Moon System’s major-axis in miles). So, 4 X 360 X 360 X 360 is the distance to the Sun and back. What are the odds of that being an accident?

But we are not done yet.

When the 186,624,000-miles is multiplied by Pi(3.1416), the result is 586,297,958.4-miles (the orbital circumference). And, when the 586,297,958.4-mile is divided by the “Sacred Number-216”, the result is 2,714,342.4-miles (the precise measure of the Sun’s photospheric circumference). Who could possibly believe that is a coincidence? 

When the Sun’s 2,714,342.4-mile circumference is divided by 109, the result is 24,902.22385-miles (the precise length of Earth’s equatorial circumference).

Naturally, there is the question of the accuracy of the above figures. For verification let’s start with a number that is known to be reliable–the circumference of the Moon.

Here’s one of the dozens of Google listings showing the Moon’s circumference to be  6,785-miles and that its diameter is 2,160-miles. Its exact circumference is 6,785.856-miles. if we divided that figure by Pi(3.1416) the result would be 2,160-miles which is identical as in the above listing. So, we’re starting with a commonly accepted value.

Now, NASA tells us that the Moon’s circumference is 1/400th the size of the Sun, and if that were not the case, there would be no eclipse cycle. So, 6,785.856 X 400 is 2,714,342.4-miles, which is identical to the value prescribed for the photospheric circumference above. Next, if the Moon’s circumference (6,758.856) is multiplied by 86,400, the result should be the Earth’s orbital circumference (6,758.856 X 86,400 = 586,297,958.4). Here again, the results are identical to the vale prescribed for Earth’s orbital circumference above. These numbers are not about the prescribed values. They are the exact values.

Is there anyone reading this who still believes that all of this is simply a series of wild coincidences? 

Here is what is taught in our schools about the sexagesimal system:

“Sumerians used sexagesimal numerals not only because the number 60 has many divisors or it is countable on the fingers of both hands but because 60 is the least common multiple of the number of fingers of both hands and the number of months in a year.” 

Does any of that sound right to you?

I’ll close this post by offering the following opinion:

The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read or write, but those who cannot unlearn the many half-truths that they have been conditioned to believe. The more astute among us seek out the objective truth. 

If you enjoyed reading this article, it would be most appreciated if you would like this page and share it with friends. This is just the tip of the proverbial iceberg and much more will follow.

© 2010 – 2021 – Ronald G. Messick – All Rights Reserved   


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Ronald Messick

Ron is an independent researcher with a focus on the inner workings of the solar system in general and on solar variability in particular. His most recent project, the solar system's schematic, has been a fulltime labor of love for the past 16-years. He is retired and resides in the beautiful Pacific Northwest.

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