Could The Pi() Constant be a Variable?

By Ronald G. Messick

You be the judge.

Pi(3.14159…) is, literally, hardwired into our society. It permeates all of physics, astronomy and virtually all other sciences, engineering software, astronomical software, geographical coordinate, navigation systems and on and on. Not to mention an incalculable number of textbooks.



But, when one considers the fact that there are no perfectly round spheres or orbits in our solar system or, perhaps, the universe, it should give pause. You would think that someone would question the wisdom of using a formula that assumes all orbits are round when every last one of them is an ellipse. The obvious result is either a fractionally wrong perimeter or a fractionally wrong diameter. Both are wrong.

In the field of astronomy, the Pi Constant is used for convenience. That’s why astronomers always use the word “about” when referring to distances. But the clockwork motion that is observed within the solar system simply can’t be working on close approximations.

The root of the problem is a general lack of understanding of what Pi() is about. Pi is not about finding the perimeter of a circle. It is nature’s mechanism for applying just the right amount of kinetic energy to the axile of rotation for the purpose of correlating orbital time with orbital distance. It exists at every level from the atom to the Milky-way. If the Pi (value) used is off, the time-distance cycle is a mismatch. That’s where the word “about” comes in.

What determines the correct value?

Consider this example; Our objective is to find the correct value of Pi() for an orbital period of exactly 365-days. The first step is to multiply 365 X 86,400. The result is the number of seconds in a 365-day year (31,536,000). The second step is to convert the time period into a velocity, I.e.; (31,536,000 / 10^7) = 3.1536). The numerator (31,536,000) is time and the denominator (10^7) is a “Relative Unit of Energy” (RUE). The product (3.1536) applies the necessary kinetic energy to the axis of rotation.

Here’s what that looks like:Manifestation of Time

In the above table, 1-AU is synonymous with Pi(3.1536). As is illustrated, all other planetary orbits are factored accordingly to AUs. To find out what would have happened if the value of Pi(3.14159) had been used, we simply multiply 10^7 by 3.14159 and divide the result by 86,400 (10,000,000 X 3.14159 = 31,415,900 /86,400 = 363.6099537-days). The amount of kinetic energy that would have been applied is a serious mismatch with the actual distance associated with 1-AU.

As the table shows, relative pressure density diminishes at the same rate that gravity pressures increase. Therefore, time and distance should be accurate right down to the second.

Your comments may be sent to

Ronald G. Messick



Uniformally Adjusting Planetary Motion

Theoretical mechanism for mass re-distribution

If you have already read “The Solar System’s Underlying Reality” and “The Cause of Clockwork Motion of Planets”, you should be able to make sense out of this conjecture.

The basic premise is that because of linkages, established in the two posts mentioned above, expansion or contraction in the Sun’s photospheric diameter would increase or decrease the size of a relative unit of energy (10^7) and, because of its linkage with the AU, uniform adjustments would be triggered throughout the system.

Theoretically, these adjustments materialize at the sphere of influence boundary between the Sun and the planet.


Increases in solar diameter, for example, would increase the Sun’s sphere of influence while reducing the planet’s influence and, because influence translates to mass, adjustments are triggered to orbits and spin rates.

On planet Earth, those adjustments manifest as incremental increases or decreases in leap-seconds (or slight changes in kinetic energy). The cumulative effects become leap-days and are reconciled with our Gregorian calendar.

Your comments may be sent to

Ronald G. Messick




The Cause of Clockwork Motion of Planets

Those involved in planetary science have long known that Newton’s view of the universe was that of isolated “billiard balls” occasionally perturbing each other and causing chaos. Yet, what is observed is clockwork stability. Clockwork stability, however, requires a feedback mechanism to control orbital spacing and, presently, that mechanism does not exist.

The Sun contains a whopping 99.9% of all the mass in the solar system and its influence is, literally, that of a god. So, in a practical sense, all motion begins with the rotation of the all-mighty Sun; i.e., (rotating gear shaft powering the planetary gears).


Planetary Gears


Planetary orbits, themselves, are comprised of uniform centrifugal radiative emanations from the Sun–the very same pressures responsible for the Hydrostatic Equilibrium that prevents the Sun from collapsing in on itself.


The Sun’s hydrostatic equilibrium point is its photospheric circumference–where the centrifugal radiative emanations spiraling outwards are matched by the forces of gravity spiraling inwards as in the above illustration.


Kepler’s laws of planetary motion goes on to remind us “that the force of the central gravity (the Sun) must be balanced by the centrifugal force of the orbiting planet.” But, what Kepler didn’t say is that the forces that manifest the photospheric circumference recreate themselves at uniform intervals of [10^7 X AU X 18.59267746]. The Earth, for instance, is at 1-AU, so [10,000,000 X 1-AU X 18.59267746 = 185,926,447.6-miles] which is the precise length of the Earth’s major axis. The same is true for all the planets. The only thing that changes is the number of AU.

Spacing of Planetary Orbits2

The 10,000,000 dollar question is: Why 18.59267746?

I’ll try to answer that question in a moment, but first, some context; The theoretical speed with which the planets orbit the Sun is said to be a fine balance between the escape velocity that applies for their distance from the Sun and the speed below which an orbit would decay and the planets crash into the Sun. However, in the overall scheme of things, planetary mass and escape velocity are not even part of the equation.Energy2

Energy budgets the same for all planetary orbits

The so-called relative energy necessary to sustain an orbit is listed in the right-hand column of the above table–and as you’ll notice–they are all the same. I’ll get back to that in a minute, but first, the analytical values; the first column lists the planetary distances calculated in the previous table. Orbit time (in the next column) is simply the orbital period broken down into seconds. Then, the distance figures are divided by the time figures to calculate orbital velocities and listed in the middle column. Relative distances (in terms of AUs) are in the next column with their square roots listed next door. Finally, the column on the far right lists the energy budgets which are derived by multiplying the square root of the distance by velocity. The square root of distance is used because the effect of gravity diminishes with the square of the distance.

What does it mean?

The so-called energy budgets have been described to me as the quantity or volume of relative energy-units contained within the orbit’s perimeter (think pressure). The term relative is used because density dissipates with distance (AU). The farther the distance from the Sun the lesser the density and less density means less energy. Therefore, a larger volume is necessary to amass the budgeted amount of energy.

Here’s what I think is the bottom line; You’ll notice that Mercury and Neptune both have, relatively, the same energy budget—solely based on the square roots of their AUs X their velocities. The fact that Neptune is 30-times more massive is not even a consideration.

The implication is that expanding forces spiraling out from the Sun have an inverse relationship with gravitational (or compressive) forces spiraling in towards the Sun–meaning that both forces are impacted equally by the square of the distance. The result is an equilibrium vortex center (or homogeneous state) which negates planetary-mass altogether—implying there is no resistance to acceleration so the body is weightless, and therefore, its mass is zero. With each planet having zero mass, the relative energy requirement is the same (18.59267746).

10^7 is a relative unit of energy (RUE).

Your comments may be sent to

Ronald G. Messick


The source of the ancient 360-day year

By Ronald G. Messick

The ancient Assyrians, Chaldeans, Egyptians, Hebrews, Persians, Greeks, Phoenicians, Chinese, Mayans, Hindus, and Carthaginians all used 360-day calendars.

Most of us find that strange because our common sense tells us that clocks and calendars evolved naturally from people’s obsession with the movement of objects across the sky. It would seem natural that observations from different latitudes would lead to a multitude of schemes to describe what had been observed.


In spite of latitude, vast distances, and physical barriers, such as mountains and oceans, people all over the planet had come up with the exact same schematic. How is that even possible?

Academia, for the most part, has chalked it up as coincidental. Another sizable group, commonly referred to as catastrophists, believe there was a period of planetary upheaval in ancient times that caused the length of the year to expand from 360 to 365-days. I’d like to offer what I consider to be a more plausible explanation.

Recent research has traced the earliest known use of the 360-day calendar to the ancient Vedics long before it appeared in Mesopotamia, Egypt or Meso-America. In studying Vedic science, I learned that the numbers 108 and 216 are considered sacred. Number 108, for instance, is said to reflect “the distance to the Sun” and, the number 216 is said to reflect “the distance to the sky”.

We can only assume the ancient astronomers’ point of reference was from Earth. Accordingly, one would assume that number 108 refers to the distance from the Earth to the Sun, and that the number 216 refers to the distance from the Sun to the sky (or the 360-degree circle of the sky).

The Surya Siddhanta references Earth’s polar circumference as 24,883.2 British miles. When that figure is multiplied by 108 the result is 2,684,385.6 miles which, if our supposition is true, would reflect the Solar circumference. But, the Earth also has an equatorial circumference which s slightly larger. So, I multiplied the equatorial circumference of 24,903.95329-miles by 109 which resulted in a solar circumference of 2,714,530.909-miles.

The thought of the Sun having two different diameters seemed strange, but evidence provided by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center confirmed that the Sun’s shape is not a perfect circle that I had imagined.NASA_The Shape of the Sun

At this point, we have calculated the two theoretical solar circumferences. Now we need to multiply those figures by 216 to calculate the 360-degree circumference of the sky. Here’s what that looks like.

The Ancient Vedic Sky

Interestingly, the ancient formula for calculating the Sun’s photospheric circumference is: [12^7 X 400 /5280 = 2,714,530.909-miles] or precisely [24,903.95329 X 109].

The next step is to make sure that orbital distances match orbital time periods. That will be determined by the orbit’s velocity. Orbital velocity is distance (miles) divided by time (seconds). Here’s what that looks like.


Velocity is obtained by the application of kinetic energy to an orbit’s axis of rotation. That requires a unique multiplier or Pi() value, and, as illustrated in the above table, the number of seconds is divided by 10^7 to determine what the proper multiplier is.

In the next illustration, the two orbital circumferences are divided by seconds to calculate orbital velocities. Then, the velocities are multiplied by 10^7 which calculates the length of the orbital diameters. Finally, the diameters (or axes) are multiplied by the unique Pi() values to apply the appropriate centrifugal force to sustain the orbit. If the value derived by multiplying the diameter by Pi matches the values derived by multiplying the solar circumference by 216, the orbit’s analytical values are in sync and the validation is confirmed.


Vedic science list the distance from the Earth to the Sun as 93,312,000 X 2 = 186,624,000 which matches the above polar configuration perfectly.


The numbers and methods prescribed by the ancient Vedic are accurate right down to the second and leave little room for doubt about the source of these calendars. The purpose of the 360-day calendar, however, is still a matter of interpretation.

A skilled analyst will quickly recognize the synodic implications of these two orbital periods while the amateur observer will have no clue. I am a skilled analyst and not ashamed to admit that I am bewildered by the vast knowledge of these ancient people. Let me give you two examples;

1. The synodic implications of the two solar rotation periods:

Solar Rotation Harmonics

The above analysis shows that when the solar circumferences are converted to rotation days and multiplied by 216, the calculated result is the lunar precession period or the nodal cycle–which is well-recognized as the all-important driver of El Nino and La Nina cycles. So, the ancient 360-day calendar was never about time–it is about timing.

2. Earth orbital harmonics:

Earth Orbital Harmonics

The above table shows that the 360 and 365-day calendars synodically realign every 72-years. There are precisely 360 of these alignments in one 25,920-year Platonic cycle.

I’m reminded of a quote by the late Nikola Tesla—the Serbian-American inventor that discovered the alternating electric current that lit up our world:

If you want to find the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency, and vibration.”

― Nikola Tesla

The solar rotation and planetary harmonics described above is exactly the kind of thing that Tesla is referring to. But, it seems that most 360-day calendar aficionados are only interested in using the 360-day calendar to support a broader catastrophist or faith-based narrative. So, there is virtually no one paying attention to this extremely important area of research.

Your comments may be sent to

Ronald G. Messick


Cycle Research Institute:

1/2 of the lunar nodal cycle:

9.33-year cycle sales of a manufacturing company; 104; 431; 434
9.33-year cycle wholesale price index; all commodities; 104
9.34-year cycle silver mine production; 104
9.37-year cycle sweet potato acreage harvested; 105
9.4-year cycle tree-ring width; 105
9.4-year cycle varves; 105
9.41-year cycle sugar prices; 105
9.44-year cycle cotton production; 105
9.46-year cycle cheese consumption; 105
9.47-year cycle cotton prices; 105
9.48-year cycle sheep value; 105
9.4- or 9.5-year cycle cotton production; 94
9.4- or 9.5-year cycle rainfall; 94
9.4- or 9.5-year cycle weather; 94

18.40-18.664 year nodal cycle

18.33- (18 1/3)- year cycle building activity and construction; 26; 343-345; 349; 443-444
18.33- (18 1/3)- year cycle building permits; 444; 611
18.33- (18 1/3)- year cycle buildings (residential); 351; 355
18.33- (18 1/3)- year cycle discounts and loans; 443-444
18.33- (18 1/3)- year cycle freight traffic (Canadian Pacific Railway); 444
18.33- (18 1/3)- year cycle furniture produced; 444
18.33- (18 1/3)- year cycle an industrial company; 443
18.33- (18 1/3)- year cycle lumber production; 444
18.33- (18 1/3)- year cycle marriage rates; 343; 345; 349; 443
18.33- (18 1/3)- year cycle panics; 444
18.33- (18 1/3)- year cycle pig iron; 443-444
18.33- (18 1/3)- year cycle pig iron production; 347; 444
18.33- (18 1/3)- year cycle production; 314; 343-357
18.33- (18 1/3)- year cycle real estate activity; 17-18; 343; 349; 353-354; 611
18.33- (18 1/3)- year cycle residential permits; 444
18.33- (18 1/3)- year cycle sales of an industrial company; 347; 349
18.33- (18 1/3)- year cycle sales of a public utility company; 27-29; 443-444; 611
18.33- (18 1/3)- year cycle stock prices; 23; 26; 347-349
18.33- (18 1/3)- year cycle varves; 26
18.33- (18 1/3)- year cycle wheat acreage; 345; 349; 444; 611
18.3562-year cycle stock prices; 442
18.539-year cycle post office revenues; 598; 600
18.6-year cycle axis of earth; 748

.1/2 of the 72-year cycle:

35.5-year cycle weather; 63
35.9-year cycle auroras; frequency of; 63
36-year cycle barometric pressure; 63
36-year cycle English consols value; 63
36-year cycle manufacturing production; 63
36-year cycle wheat prices; 63
36.5- (36 1/2 )-year cycle floods; Nile River; 115



The Solar System’s Underlying Reality

By Ronald G. Messick


The solar system is such a complex puzzle that it takes a specialist in the fields of cosmology, astronomy, and orbital mechanics to assemble its pieces. But a recent discovery has revealed a simpler underlying reality–a scheme so grand that only “Mother Nature” could have conceived it.

Instead of a solar system filled with randomness as one might expect, a truly remarkable relationship was found to exists between the Sun’s photosphere and the orbits of the planet’s. The substance of this breakthrough is straight forward and will only take three paragraphs to describe.

To put things in context, the Sun contains a whopping 99.9% of all the mass in the solar system and its influence is, literally, that of a god. So, in a practical sense, all motion begins with the rotation of the Sun; i.e., (the gear shaft powering the planetary gears).


Astonishingly, all planetary gears rotate at the
uniform rate of 216 revolutions per orbit. 

Here’s how it works; the photospheric circumference is described as 2,714,530.909 imperial miles. And, when that value is multiplied by the planet’s normalized distance from the Sun; i.e., astronomical units (AUs) and then, multiplied again by “216” the calculated result is, invariably, the precise length of the planet’s orbit (expressed in imperial miles).

Check it out…

Solar rotation at the root of planetary orbits

Solar circumference X AU X 216–that’s it–all orbits–no exceptions. 

The bottom line–the photosphere, itself, provides a heliocentric frame of reference. Simply reversing the order of the components (as has been done in the table below) should make that point very clear. Copernicus brought about a revolution in the field of astronomy by describing how the solar system looked from the Sun which is exactly what we are looking at here.

Photospheric Constant1

How accurate are these calculations? 


As illustrated above, both time and distance reconcile perfectly with the Gregorian calendar’s scheme of days, hours, minutes and seconds. The miles per second represents the planet’s orbital frequency (or hertz). Here’s an example,

Earth: 18.59267746 X 86,400 X 365 = 586,338,676.38 miles.

What does it mean?

The significance of this discovery has to do with two areas of scientific research;

1. The mechanism that links planetary orbits to the 11-year solar cycle. The majority of scientists work on the principle that the Sun is self-modulating and each solar cycle is a product of a random number generator. However, there are dozens of scientific papers showing correlations between planetary orbits and the 11-year solar cycle. But, because of the extreme distances involved and the fact that gravity declines at the square of the distance, those papers are basically ignored. However, this uniform 216:1 relationship between the photospheric circumference and planetary orbits suggests that something else is at play here.

2. The mechanism that controls planetary spacing; Those involved in planetary science have long known that Newton’s view of the universe was that of isolated “billiard balls” occasionally perturbing each other and causing chaos. Yet, what is observed is clockwork stability. Clockwork stability, however, requires a feedback mechanism to control orbital spacing and, presently, that mechanism does not exist. The 216:1 relationship between the photospheric circumference and planetary orbits may be an important clue.


I’m reminded of a quote by the late Nikola Tesla—the Serbian-American inventor that discovered the alternating electric current that lit up our world:

If you want to find the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency, and vibration.”

― Nikola Tesla

This uniform 216:1 relationship between the photospheric circumference and planetary orbits is exactly the kind of thing that Tesla is referring to. But, no one is paying any attention. For example, the photospheric circumference of 2,714,530.909 miles divided by the 86,400 seconds in a day is 31.4181818-days (rotation period). Those 31.4181818-day rotations multiplied by 216 is 6,786.327273-days. Why does that matter? Because 6,786.327273 divided by 365 is 18.59267746-years–the exact length of the lunar precession cycle which is well-recognized as the all-important driver of El Nino and La Nina cycles.

Your comments may be sent to

Ronald G. Messick

Curiously, one of Vedic science’s most sacred numbers is 216 (which is said to reflect the “the distance to the sky”). And, the photospheric circumference (2,714,530.909) divided by 109 is 24,903.95329-miles (Earth’s equatorial circumference). Therefore, the Earth’s equatorial circumference multiplied by 109 is the distance to the Sun and the Sun multiplied by 216 is the distance to the sky. How cool is that?Copyright

Younger-Dryas–“The Underlying Reality”

By Ronald G. Messick

It is commonly accepted that starting in about 13,000 (BCE), the Earth experienced three major climatic catastrophes–one after another; i.e. (Bölling-Allerød, Younger-Dryas and Pre-boreal warming periods). They are described herein as catastrophic because that 1-2-3 punch annihilated a significant percentage of life on Earth.

The most precise records of late Pleistocene climate changes are the ice cores of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project (GISP) and the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP). These cores are especially important because the ages of the ice at various levels in the core have been measured by counting annual layers in the ice, giving a very accurate chronology of climatic fluctuations determined by measurement of annual layers.

The illustration below flags the timing associated with those three events based on temperature data from Cuffy and Clow (1997) which was modified by Alley (2000). A comparison of the two different approaches shows essential agreement.


What follows is a description of the three events:

  • 1. The Bölling-Allerød interstadial was a sudden, intense, climatic warming period that caused dramatic melting of large Ice Age ice sheets that covered Canada and the northern U.S., all of Scandinavia, and much of northern Europe and Russia. Sea level that had been 120 m (~400 ft) lower than present rose quickly and submerged large areas of the Earth’s surface that had been dry land during the Ice Age. This warming occurred abruptly in only a few years (Steffensen et al., 2008). This warming (~12° C; ~21° F) ran from c. 12,800 to c. 10,900 (BCE). It ended abruptly with the onset of the Younger Dryas.
  • 2. The Younger-Dryas was a cold period that reduced temperatures back to near-glacial levels within a decade. It began about 10,900 (BCE) when global temperatures plunged sharply (~8°C; ~14° F), sparking a 1200-year period of glacial re-advance. Its end came abruptly with the onset of Pre-boreal warming about 9,700 (BCE).
  • 3. Pre-boreal warming began about 9,700 (BCE) when, almost overnight, global temperatures rose parabolically (~12° C; ~21° F), marking the end of the Younger Dryas cold period and the end of the Pleistocene Ice Age. The peak rise in temperatures was reached about 9,500 (BCE). 

The narrative of the events was provided by Dr. Don J. Easterbrook

There has been an abundance of speculation as to the cause of these events (even a book or two) but no one has offered an explanation that ties all three of these extreme climate events together. Instead of simply classifying these events as random acts of nature, such as meteor strikes, we argue that all three events have a physical cause which would imply that these types of events may be predictable.

The proposed mechanism: “Ultra-low-frequency emanations from the Sun”–a concept that is firmly rooted in science. The challenge is to identify the emanations that impact long-term climate conditions here on Earth.

Two possible harmonic frequencies have been identified. The pattern below, overlayed on top of the temperature data, is the manifestation of one of the two frequencies.


The objective is to identify wave structures that are synchronous with sudden and extreme shifts in climate such as those that had delivered the subject 1, 2, 3-punch. The wave structures themselves represent the locked potential contained within two opposing magnetic fields.

To show the degree with which peaks and throughs align themselves with key temperature turning-points, the peaks are flagged with a verticle red arrow and the throughs are identified with a red rectangle.


Correlations between historical events and wave propagation is hard to deny. Even ardent skeptics will agree that something is going on here besides chance. But, what is even more exciting is that these correlations continue right up to the present (see exhibits below).

In the following illustration, a second wave structure is overlayed on the first wave with its peaks and throughs identified as was done with wave one. The results are astonishing.


In the six-thousand-year period between 14,000 and 8,000 BCE, every major climate shift was precipitated by either one of the peaks or throughs–along with a super-majority of the major climate shifts that have occurred since.

See exhibits covering periods 14,000 BCE to 4,000 AD: Here


Reference Information is provided below the comment section

Your comments are welcome.


Reference #01

The electromagnetic spectrum is a continuum of all electromagnetic waves arranged according to frequency and wavelength. All electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light (c = 3.0 × 108 m/s) in a vacuum. There seem to be no upper and lower limits to the frequency or wavelength of electromagnetic waves and no gaps in the spectrum.

However, electromagnetic waves have been observed with incredibly long wavelengths — these waves are known as ultra low frequency (ULF) waves, or micropulsations. Since frequency and wavelength are inversely proportional (v = fλ, for electromagnetic waves c = fλ), the name “ultra low frequency” is equivalent to “ultra long wavelength” — although nobody refers to them as such. The range of wavelengths which refer to ULF waves is disputable, and different sources cite different ranges. The consensus seems to be that the wavelength of the longest electromagnetic wave is in the range from 106 to 1011 M. However, it is not impossible to discover a wave with a wavelength approaching infinity.

ULF waves seem to have extraterrestrial sources (they seem to “result from interactions between plasma emitted from the sun (solar wind) and the Earth’s [magnetic] field”). Geomagnetic pulsations were first observed by Balfour Stewart in 1859, and he published his findings in 1861. Some people are interested in the sounds produced by ULF waves, VLF waves (very low frequency), and ELF waves (extremely low frequency). There is also speculation and research into the possibility that micropulsations may have an affect on people’s health and on women’s menstrual cycles.

Rachel Shapiro — 2001

From <>

Reference #02

The interaction of ultra-low-frequency pc3-5 waves with charged particles in Earth’s magnetosphere Qiugang Zong1 • Robert Rankin2 • Xuzhi Zhou1 Received: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 Division of Plasma Physics, Association of Asia Pacific Physical Societies 2017

Abstract One of the most important issues in space physics is to identify the dominant processes that transfer energy from the solar wind to energetic particle populations in Earth’s inner magnetosphere. Ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves are an important consideration as they propagate electromagnetic energy over vast distances with little dissipation and interact with charged particles via drift resonance and drift-bounce resonance. ULF waves also take part in magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and thus play an essential role in regulating energy flow throughout the entire system. This review summarizes recent advances in the characterization of ULF Pc3-5 waves in different regions of the magnetosphere, including ion and electron acceleration associated with these waves.’s_magnetosphere


Reference #03

The physical processes of transferring electromagnetic energy from sun to the earth is referred to as Solar – Terrestrial system. It involves terrestrial atmosphere, the outer part of geomagnetic field, and the solar events, which influence them.

Earth’s magnetic shield, which protects against harmful radiation from the sun and more distant sources, is full of ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves. These waves transfer energy from outside Earth’s magnetic shield to regions inside it. And, they play a key role in creating the impacts of space weather—including geomagnetic storms. The frequency of those waves ranges from fractions of a millihertz (MHz) up to just 1 hertz (Hz). One-thousand MHz equals 1 Hz—a much lower frequency than the range of human hearing.

From <>

Reference #04

To further investigate this coupling mechanism, we propose another exogenous source to be analyzed which is cosmic ray. In this study, the investigation on possible relationship between geomagnetic ULF pulsation and seismicity due to exogenous parameters has been focused. Unlike other frequency range, ULF waves can propagate

through the crust and reach the earth surface, thus produce reliable precursors to large impending earthquakes.